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Table 9 Analysis of Case Study of Open Innovation from the Standpoint of the NIS

From: Historical review on the patterns of open innovation at the national level: the case of the roman period

NIS constituents Open innovation type
Acquisition type In-sourcing type Collaboration type User innovation type Spin-off type
Innovative agent Diplomacy Science and technology Diplomacy Military Territorial management
Innovative activity Encouraging innovations in various fields such as education and medicine through the influx of talented personnel and non-Romans in exchange for citizenship Adopting and reforming the scientific and precise solar calendar as well as the basic scientists from the conquered lands, thereby standardizing the time Establishing collaborative systems and reforming such networks to provide combat support and efficient management of conquered territories Innovations in military system through territorial expansions and wars, such as adopting suitable weapon system and combat formations or reforms in strategy and tactics Adopting foreign technology to urban construction projects in conquered lands, and fostering architectural reforms throughout the territories by disseminating relevant technology to subject lands.
Government Support Policies Enacted a policy to assign obligations for medical service in certain areas with citizenship Provided support to mathematicians and earth science personnel regardless of their home nation or birthplace Assigned equal profits, rights, and duties to the subjects and prohibited treaties between subject nations Assimilated and adopted superior military elements into the ranks and assigned suitable strategies tailored to individual legions. Assimilated superior technology or technicians from subject lands and assigned outsourcing projects to these technicians when the construction requires their specialty
Environmental and institutional context Established a social environment in which all capable men can rise into the office and enacted jus gentium, a law that is applied equally to all citizens regardless of their background Influx and adoption of various academia due to territorial expansions and conquests, research teams formed in various areas The Surrounding nations were, in overall, positive about having an alliance with Rome, and many approved the openness of Rome. The increase in the pace of combat in both southern and northern regions, and maintaining existing systems were risky Surrounding nations had superior technology in architecture and construction technology, making adoption of such technology feasible