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Table 2 Types of Open Innovation and Contents

From: Historical review on the patterns of open innovation at the national level: the case of the roman period

Method Concept Cases
In-sourcing Exploring external technology or know-how “C&D” strategy of P&G
R&D collaboration R&D collaboration with external organization (e.g. university) “Lablet” of Intel
Acquisition Acquisition of a company or a product M&As of Cisco
User innovation Innovation that is performed by the user and not the supplier Medical Instrument, Toy, Game
Technology licensing Licensing internal technology outside (sic. \\outward licensing of internal technology) MIPV’ of MS
Spin-off Spinning off internal organization “New venture group” of Lucent
Joint venturing Investing venture with venture capital (VC) Venturing between HP Lab and VC
Openning (sic. opening) project Openning (sic. opening) project or source to the public Linux