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Table 10 Types and Cases of Open Innovation in Corporate and National Perspectives

From: Historical review on the patterns of open innovation at the national level: the case of the roman period

Method Company level National level
Concept Cases Cases
In-sourcing Exploring external technology or know-how “C&D” strategy of P&G Caesar’s Calendar Reform
R&D collaboration R&D collaboration with external organization (e.g., university) “Lablet” of Intel Roman Alliance
Acquisition Acquisition of a company or product M&As of Cisco Embracing non-Romans
User innovation Innovation that is performed based on user and not the supplier Medical Instrument, Toy, Game Adopting military technology from surrounding nations
Spin-off Spinning off internal organization “New venture group” of Lucent Roman road and urban construction