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Table 3 Comparing innovation systems in developed and developing countries

From: Innovation systems research: an agenda for developing countries

Dimension Developed context Developing Context
Learning and interactions among economic agents Active, strong, dense Passive, weak and fragmented
S&T capabilities Boundless, Ease in technology absorption, High levels of scientific training Limited, Difficulty in technology absorption, Low levels of scientific training
Main knowledge sources Localized Foreign
Nature of innovative output Formal and active, Leaders, Radical and Creative, High investments Mostly informal and passive, Followers, Incremental and Imitative, Low investments
Industrial and innovation policy Strong intellectual property laws Weak intellectual property laws
Economic and business environment Structured markets, high purchasing power giving rise to strong domestic demand for new high-tech products Large but unstructured markets, low purchasing power giving rise to weak domestic demand for technological innovation
  1. Source: Authors