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Table 1 Group comparison after matching (LECC funded vs. non-funded, mean values)

From: Cluster policy: insights from the German leading edge cluster competition

Outcome variable LECC-funded Non-funded ATTDiD t-test   #
All companies (2007–2011)
 CGR R&D expenditures 0.45a −0.138 0.588 3.39 *** 135
 CGR internal R&D expend. 0.403 −0.122 0.525 2.99 *** 110
 CGR external R&D expend. 0.42 0.565 −0.145 0.43   109
 CGR R&D personnel 0.279 0.022 0.257 2.14 ** 72
 Δ R&D exp./employees 5.681 −0.229 5.91 2.56 ** 134
 Δ R&D exp./turnover 0.143 −2.555 2.698 1.22   135
 Δ internal R&D exp./turnover −1.67 −2.204 0.534 0.25   110
 Δ external R&D exp./turnover 1.26 −0.35 1.61 1.85 * 110
SME only (2007–2011)
 CGR R&D expenditures 0.576 −0.197 0.774 3.74 *** 80
 CGR internal R&D expend. 0.552 −0.217 0.77 3.36 *** 57
 CGR external R&D expend. 0.624 −0.26 0.884 2.74 *** 57
 CGR R&D personnel 0.295 −0.064 0.359 2.63 *** 48
 Δ R&D exp./employees 6.155 −3.269 9.424 2.81 *** 79
 Δ R&D exp./turnover −0.943 −4.941 3.998 1.12   80
 Δ internal R&D exp./turnover −4.273 −5.096 0.823 0.22   57
 Δ external R&D exp./turnover 1.901 −1.183 3.084 1.96 ** 57
  1. Discrete change (Δ) or continuous growth rate (CGR) of mean values. a The value 0,45 means an 45% increase. ATTDiD: difference between mean values in column 2 and 3. # number of observations. * p < 0.10, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01. For a more detailed description of the method and variables see Engel et al. (2017)