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Table 2 Models, frameworks and tools

From: Sustainable development of smart cities: a systematic review of the literature

Literature Model Summary
Yigitcanlar, T., & Lee, S. H. (2014). Korean ubiquitous-eco-city: A smart-sustainable urban form or a branding hoax?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89, 100–114. Korea city model, u-eco-city U-eco-city is basically an ICT and eco-technology. The principal premise of a u-eco-city is to provide a high quality of life and place to residents, workers and visitors with low-to-no negative impacts on the natural environment with support from the state-of-the-art technologies in their planning, development and management.
Kramers, A., Höjer, M., Lövehagen, N., & Wangel, J. (2014). Smart sustainable cities–Exploring ICT solutions for reduced energy use in cities. Environmental Modelling & Software, 56, 52–62. Analytical framework The analytical framework is intended to be of use to researches, city and regional authorities and ICT companies interested in acquiring a better understanding of how ICT investments could contribute to reduce energy use in cities.
Lazaroiu, G. C., & Roscia, M. (2012). Definition methodology for the smart cities model. Energy, 47(1), 326–332. Model for computing the smart city indices The model uses a procedure based on fuzzy logic for indices. It could help in policy making process as starting point of discussion between stakeholders, as well as citizens in final decision of adoption measures and best evaluated options.
Lee, J. H., Hancock, M. G., & Hu, M. C. (2014). Towards an effective framework for building smart cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 89, 80–99. Conceptual framework This research study generates taxonomies of 6 key conceptual dimensions and 17 sub-dimensions of smart city practices.
Hu, M. C., Wu, C. Y., & Shih, T. (2015). Creating a new socio-technical regime in China: Evidence from the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Futures, 70, 1–12. Eco-city model This model comprises a cluster with one or two cities playing the central hub role, surrounded by several neighbouring city spokes, closely linked to the hub by means of connected transportation, state grid networks, and economic ties.
Marsal-Llacuna, M. L., & Segal, M. E. (2016). The Intelligenter Method (I) for making “smarter” city projects and plans. Cities, 55, 127–138. Intelligenter method The method is based on the innovative idea of collaborations discovery in urban systems. It shows that what makes an urban project or a plan smart is not its sophisticated architecture or complex master planning in a technological environment.
Zhou, N., He, G., Williams, C., & Fridley, D. (2015). Elite cities: a low-carbon eco-city evaluation tool for China. Ecological Indicators, 48, 448–456. Elite cities tool The tool measures progress on 33 key indicators selected to represent priority issues within eight primary categories. It could be a useful and effective tool for local city government in defining the broad outlines of a low-carbon eco-city and assessing the progress of cities efforts towards this goal.
Tsolakis, N., & Anthopoulos, L. (2015). Eco-cities: An integrated system dynamics framework and a concise research taxonomy. Sustainable Cities and Society, 17, 1–14. Holistic system dynamics methodological framework The framework proposed, as a means to assist decision-makers, local governments and managers designing and adopting effective policies for monitoring and assessing the sustainable performance of eco-cities.
Cohen, B., & Amorós, J. E. (2014). Municipal demand-side policy tools and the strategic management of technology life cycles. Technovation, 34(12), 797–806. Conceptual framework This research has sought to develop a grounded theoretical model for the integration of innovation policy and diffusion of innovation theory.
Tan, S., Yang, J., Yan, J., Lee, C., Hashim, H., & Chen, B. (2017). A holistic low carbon city indicator framework for sustainable development. Applied Energy, 185, 1919–1930. Indicator framework The low carbon city indicator framework analyses the low-carbon development progress of cities on 20 quantitative indicators across seven categories, covering city economic development, energy pattern, social and living, carbon and environmental, urban mobility, waste, and water.
Hu, M. C., Wadin, J. L., Lo, H. C., & Huang, J. Y. (2016). Transformation toward an eco-city: lessons from three Asian cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 123, 77–87. 3Es framework The major concerns of our time reveal that a framework for assessing the sustainability performance of an eco-city requires the systematic integration of various aspects of sustainability. Therefore, this paper proposes a 3Es Framework (i.e., efficiency, economy, and effectiveness).