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Table 1 Content analysis of Know-how definitions

From: Transfer of know-how based on learning outcomes for development of open innovation

Definition and source Attributes
Knowledge Skills Attitudes Behavior
“The accumulated practical skill or expertise which allows one to do something smoothly and efficiently.”
Source: Von Hippel, E. (1987). Cooperation between rivals: Informal know-how trading. Research Policy, 16(6), 291–302.
  x x x
“Description of knowing how to do something; description of what defines current practice inside a firm.”
Source: Kogut, B., Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology. Organization Science, 3(3), 383–397.
x    x
“A commercially viable integration of proficient technique gained by practicing the work process of an expert and contextual knowledge gained by observing and questioning other workers.”
Source: Wolek, F.W., Klinger, J.W. (1998). Apprenticeship and the transfer of technical know-how. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 23(3), 51–57.
x x   x
“Specific professional and technological information which is commercially valuable and usually an industrial secret.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Baldunčiks, J. (1999). Svešvārdu vārdnīca. Rīga: Jumava.
x x x  
“Knowledge or proficiency based high technology skill, specific knowledge co-existing with practical skills and their use including natural invention skill and scientifically proficient imagination.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Beļickis, I., Blūma, D., Koķe, T., Markus, D., Skujiņa, V., Šalme, A. (2000). Pedag oģijas terminu skaidrojošā vārdnīca : aptuveni 1500 terminu latviešu, angļu, vācu un krievu valodā. Rīga: Zvaigzne ABC.
x x x x
“Scientific technological, commercial, organizational etc. knowledge, information which specifically favors the user in business…in the form of trade secrets, non-patented technological processes, selective not generally known production or trade information…is international business deal object, a product that can be bought or sold.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Zinātība (2000). Ekonomikas skaidrojošā vārdnīca. http://termini.lza.lv/term.php?term=zinātība&lang=LV. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x  
“Any professional skill based specific information including otherwise unavailable (undisclosed, confidential) information.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Zinātība (2002). Nacionālais Apgāds. http://www.letonika.lv.resursi.rtu.lv/groups/default.aspx?cid=30981&r=1&lid=30981&q=zin%C4%81t%C4%ABba&h=5126. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x  
Organizational practices.
Source: Jensen, R., and Szulanski, G. (2004). Stickiness and the Adaptation of Organizational Practices in Cross-Border Knowledge Transfers. Journal of International Business Studies, 35, 508–523.
    x
“Contains trade secret specific information thus providing secrecy.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Konkurences padomes lēmums Nr.49. (2005). Konkurences padome. http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=119627. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x    
“Employee-generated information about the performance of specific solutions to problems that may or will recur in the future.”
Source: Lee, D., Van den Steen, E. (2006). Managing Know-How. http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/07-039_1ba20f8f-7b6a-464d-bf73-c0f00a5e9a42.pdf. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“Specific knowledge – set of non-patented practical information resulting from experience and testing and is secret (not generally known or easily accessible), substantial (includes significant information about production or applied production processes) and verifiable (described sufficiently enough to verify its secrecy and substantially).” (Translated by authors) Source: Ministru kabineta noteikumi Nr.798. (2008). Ministru kabinets. http://likumi.lv/ta/id/181856-noteikumi-par-atsevisku-horizontalo-sadarbibas-vienosanos-nepaklausanu-konkurences-likuma-11-panta-pirmaja-dala-noteiktajam-vie… Accessed 14 May 2016. x x x  
“Scientific technological, commercial, organizational knowledge or information. It may include trade secrets, descriptions of non-patented technological processes or other not generally known information. In tourism industry, know-how is required for implementing and employing new technological processes, for example, implementing new computerized booking systems.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Zinātība (2008). Tūrisma un viesmīlības terminu skaidrojošā vārdnīca. http://termini.lza.lv/term.php?term=zinātība&lang=LV. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x  
“The (technical) knowledge and skill required to do something.”
Source: Know-how. (2008). WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“The kind of knowledge developed and kept within the borders of the individual firm.”
Source: Foray, D., Lundvall, B-A. (2009). The Knowledge-Based Economy: From the Economics of Knowledge to the Learning Economy. In D. Neef, T. Siesfeld, J. Cefola (Ed.), The Economic Impact of Knowledge (pp. 115–121). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
x   x x
“Non-patented practical information, resulting from experience and testing by the supplier, which is secret, substantial and identified: in this context, “secret” means that the know-how, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, is not generally known or easily accessible; “substantial” means that the know-how includes information which is indispensable to the buyer for the use, sale or resale of the contract goods or services; “identified” means that the know-how must be described in a sufficiently comprehensive manner so as to make it possible to verify that it fulfills the criteria of secrecy and substantiality.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Komisijas regula (ES) Nr. 330/2010 par Līguma par Eiropas Savienības darbību 101. panta 3. punkta piemērošanu vertikālu nolīgumu un saskaņotu darbību kategorijām. (2010). Eiropas Savienības Oficiālais Vēstnesis. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2010:102:0001:0007:LV:PDF. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“Knowledge of how to do something; expertise.”
Source: Know-how. (2010). Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary. (2010). Retrieved May 24 2016 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x    x
“Knowledge of how to do something well; technical skill.”
Source: Know-how. (2010). Webster’s New World College Dictionary. http://www.yourdictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“The knowledge and skill required to do something correctly.”
Source: Know-how. (2011). American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. (2011). http://www.thefreedictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
Tacit knowledge.
Source: Montazemi, A.R., Pittaway, J.J., Saremi, H.Q., Wei, Y. (2012). Factors of stickiness in transfers of know-how between MNC units. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 21(1), 31–57.
x    
“Set of documented and verifiable practical information which is significant for new product or technology development.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Ministru kabineta noteikumi Nr.14. (2013). Ministru kabinets. http://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=254171. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x   x  
“Set of practical information resulting from experience and testing, it is secret, substantial and specified.” (Translated by authors)
Source: Pamatnostādnes par Līguma par Eiropas Savienības darbību 101. Panta piemērošanu tehnoloģiju nodošanas nolīgumiem (2014). Eiropas Savienības Oficiālais Vēstnesis. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/LV/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52014XC0328(01). Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“Ingenuity, aptitude, or skill; knack; commercial and saleable knowledge of how to do a particular thing; experience.”
Source: Know-how. (2014). Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Ed. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Knowledge of how to do something, expertise. In international trade, Know-how can be defined as confidentially in the form of unpatented inventions, designs, drawings, procedures and methods, together with accumulated skills and experience in the hands of a licensor firm’s professional personnel which could assist a transferee/licensee of the object product in its manufacture and use and bring to it a competitive advantage. It can be further supported with privately maintained expert knowledge on the operation, maintenance, use/application of the object product and of its sale, usage or disposition. Know-how is transmitted form one company to others through technology transfer agreements. Model of International Technology Transfer Agreement.”
Source: Know-how. (2014). Dictionary of International Trade. http://www.globalnegotiator.com/international-trade/dictionary/know. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“Natural or acquired facility in a specific activity.”
Source: Know-how. (2014). The American Heritage Roget’s Thesaurus. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
    x
“Ingenuity, aptitude, or skill; knack; commercial and saleable knowledge of how to do a particular thing; experience.”
Source: Know-how. (2016). Collins Concise English Dictionary. http://www.wordreference.com/definition/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“A type of intellectual property. It is industrial information or techniques likely to assist in:
• the manufacture or processing of goods or materials, or
• the working of a source of mineral deposits, or
the carrying out of any agricultural, forestry or fishing operations.”
Source: Know-how. (2016). HMRC internal manual. http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/camanual/ca70010.htm. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Knowledge of how to do something; expertise.”
Source: Know-how. (2016). WordReference Random House Learner’s Dictionary of American English. http://www.wordreference.com/definition/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x    x
“Knowledge of how to do something; faculty or skill for a particular activity; expertise”
Source: Know-how. (2016). WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English. http://www.wordreference.com/definition/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Ingenuity, aptitude, or skill; knack; commercial and saleable knowledge of how to do a particular thing; experience”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Knowledge of how to do something; faculty or skill for a particular activity; expertise.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“The knowledge and skill to be able to (do something correctly).”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). English Wiktionary. http://www.yourdictionary.com/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“Proficiency or skill at a particular thing, knowledge of how to do something, expertise.”
Source: Knowhow. (n.d.). EUdict. http://www.eudict.com/?lang=en2eng&word=proficiency%20or%20skill%20at%20a%20particular%20thing,%20knowledge%20of%20how%20to%20do%20something,%20expertise. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Practical ability, knowledge and skill in a technical area.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Financial Times. http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=know_how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Knowledge, practical ability, or skill to do something.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Knowledge that is needed to do something, usually something practical.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Macmillan Dictionary. http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Knowledge of how to do something well.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. http://learnersdictionary.com/definition/know%E2%80%93how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x   x x
“Knowledge of how to do something well; knowledge of how to do something smoothly and efficiently; knowledge of how to get things done.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/know%E2%80%93how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x   x x
“Knowledge of how to get things done.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. http://www.wordcentral.com/cgi-bin/student?book=Student&va=know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x    x
“Knowledge gained by actually doing or living through something.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. http://www.wordcentral.com/cgi-bin/thesaurus?book=Thesaurus&va=know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x    x
Knowledge of how to do something and experience in doing it.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Practical knowledge or skill; expertise.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Oxford University Press. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“The knowledge and skill required to do something correctly.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Ed. https://www.wordnik.com/words/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“Skill, technical skill; practical competence”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). The Dictionary of American Slang. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“The (technical) knowledge and skill required to do something.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Vocabulary.com. https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“The knowledge and skill to be able to (do something correctly).”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Wiktionary. https://www.wordnik.com/words/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“The (technical) knowledge and skill required to do something.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). WordWeb Software. http://www.wordwebonline.com/en/KNOWHOW. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   x
“The ability to achieve a practical end due to knowledge and/or skill. …intangible property, the rights to which a person may buy or sell.”
Source: Know-how. (n.d.). Cornell University Law School. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/know-how. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x   
“Expert skill, information, or body of knowledge that (1) imparts an ability to cause a desired result, (2) is not readily available, and is (3) outside the public domain. Know how may include tangible material (such as blueprints, formulas, instructions, patterns, specifications, and trade-secrets) or intangibles (such as manufacturing practices, marketing concepts, quality control, and testing techniques) which are not common knowledge. In technology transfer agreements, know how is the most valuable factor and may have an indefinite enforceable life. Any industrial information and technique likely to assist in the manufacture or processing of goods or materials.”
Source: Know-How. (n.d.). WebFinance. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/know-how.html. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x
“…any form of technical information or assistance relating to the manufacture or placing into operation of the said products. …any practical knowledge, techniques, and skill that are required to achieve some practical end. …an intangible property in which rights may be bought and sold. …the technical skill, which large groups of men acquire through extensively financed experimentation and cooperation. …factual knowledge not capable of precise, separate description. …when used in an accumulated form, after being acquired as the result of trial and error, gives to the one acquiring it an ability to produce something which otherwise would not have known how to produce with the same accuracy or precision found necessary for commercial success.”
Source: Know-How Law & Legal Definition. (n.d.). USLegal. http://definitions.uslegal.com/k/know-how-intellectual-property-rights. Accessed 14 May 2016.
x x x x