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Table 2 Properties of four groups in Hyundai’s alliance portfolio

From: Configuring an alliance portfolio for eco-friendly innovation in the car industry: Hyundai and Toyota

Group Degree of collaboration Patent quality Forward citation Backward citation TI SL
Key Partners 7.56 1.84 1.28 3.58 0.00 0.16
Potential Partners 2.70 1.11 0.67 3.44 0.14 0.53
Nominal Partners 1.65 0.29 1.09 2.90 0.00 0.13
Diligent Partners 6.01 0.07 0.50 2.68 0.17 0.00
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