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Table 2 Final centers of clusters

From: Implementing open innovation concept in social business

1 2 3 4
Social entrepreneurship activity rate 2,97 1,65 5,11 4,54
Share of rural population 19,29 27,71 14,60 24,00
Share of shadow economy 22,54 23,31 14,80 59,50
Failed state index 41,10 73,97 35,34 83,15
Share of open-innovation based products produced by social businesses 26,93 28,39 75,74 66,70
  1. As it can be seen from the analysis, higher share of open innovation based products indicates higher level of social entrepreneurs’ activity (clusters 3 and 4, which include Finland, US, Peru, Argentina and a few others). At the same time other indicators are opposite in these two clusters: for cluster 4 failed state index is rather high, while for cluster 3 it is the lowest; same different results appear to be in case of rural population (some researchers consider higher share of rural population to be driving social business) or failed state and shadow economy (these factors were also seen as indicators of underdeveloped institutions which are related to incentives of social enterprise creation)