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Table 4 Marginal effects of multinomial Probit model for innovation choice (first model)

From: Innovation decision of Tunisian service firms: an empirical analysis

Variables Multinomial Probit model
No-innovation New-to-market only New-to-firm only Both
dy/dx SE dy/dx SE dy/dx SE dy/dx SE
Internal knowledge sourcing
 Engaging in innovation activities (ENGAG) 0.104 0.110 −0.058 0.041 −0.026 0.023 −0.019 0.123
External knowledge sourcing
 Cooperation (COOPER) −0.251 0.088*** −0.041 0.036 0.029 0.029 0.262 0.101***
 International orientation (INTER) −0.034 0 .027 −0.011 0.018 −0.001 0.011 0.047 0.036
Absorptive capacity
 Education level (QUAL) 0.098 0.114 −0.048 0.086** 0.178 0.079** −0.228 0.175
 Group membership (APP_GROUP) 0.048 0.094 −0.019 0.038 0.031 0.037 −0.060 0.119
Resources
 Size (SIZE) 0.085 0.067 0.055 0.043 0.044 0.032 −0.185 0.084**
 Size-squared −0.004 0.008 −0.004 0.004 −0.004 0.004 0.012 0.010
 Firm vintage (AGE) −0.009 0.005* −0.005 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.012 0.006*
The aims of the innovation
 Replace obsolete services (SERV_OBS) 0.042 0.026 −0.004 0.015 −0.007 0.010 −0.031 0.032
 Improve service quality (QUAL_SERV) −0.035 0.039 0.132 0.062 −0.025 0.021 −0.072 0.076
 Extend the line of services (GAM_SERV) −0.022 0.028 0.042 0.027 0.021 0.013 −0.041 0.042
 Sustain the market share (PART_MAR) −0.052 0.040 −0.138 0.061** 0.021 0.018 0.169 0.081**
 Reduce production cost (RED_COUT) −0.027 0.020 −0.018 0.019 −0.025 0.011** 0.071 0.035**
Log-likelihood −6964.8497       
Likelihood Ratio statistic (LR) 10119.297       
Prob > LR [0.000]       
AIC 14013.7       
BIC 14122.69       
R squared 0.42       
Number of observation 99       
  1. Significance level: ***p < 1 %, **p < 5 %, *p < 10 %