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Table 5 Analysis of Calendar Reform as an In-sourcing-type Open Innovation

From: Historical review on the patterns of open innovation at the national level: the case of the roman period

NIS Constituents Description of case
Innovative Agent Government of the Ancient Rome (centered around scientific and technological agents)
Innovative activity Innovation through in-sourcing by the replacement and adoption of a solar calendar in the place of the existing lunar calendar and its unscientific corrective mechanisms to provide the standardized time and precision
Standardization of time through the usage and distribution of precise and scientific calendar
Government Support Policies Policies recruiting and supporting the scientists and mathematicians (basic scientists from Egypt and Greece) for the reformation process.
Environmental and institutional context By taking in various academic knowledge (engineering, mathematics, science, philosophy, etc.) from the conquered lands, academic progress had already been in motion.
Rome had already received talented individuals in a wide field of knowledge, including the basic sciences, and had formed a talented pool of researchers beforehand.