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Table 3 Constituents of NIS

From: Historical review on the patterns of open innovation at the national level: the case of the roman period

Constituents Definition Subfactors Researchers
Innovative agent Organization who carry out innovation in a certain area Corporate organizations, noncorporate organizations (universities, research institutions, policymakers etc.), individual Freeman, 1987; Lundvall, 1992; Nelson and Rosenberg, 1993;
OECD, 1999; Hong and Lim, 1999; Lim, 2003; Koo et al., 2012
Technological innovation activities Process in which an agent learns and carries out newly known product designs or production processes, regardless of being the first to do so or not An agent-driven activity that features agents such as corporate users, corporate producers, material and component corporations, corporate competitors, and final consumers. Freeman, 1987; Lee, 1996; Lee and Song, 1998; OECD, 1999
Government support policies Government policies designed to support or foster technological innovations Technological demand policy, supply policy, dissemination policy, R&D investment policy, small and medium enterprise innovation policy, and local innovation policy, etc. Lundvall, 1992; Lee and Song, 1998; Hong and Lim, 1999; Seong and Song, 2007; Song, 2009; Lee, 2013
Environmental and institutional context The institutional context in which a suitable environment and the basis of active technological innovation can be established. Social infrastructure, such as financial support, patent and educational policies, culture, production structure, market structure, competitive environment such as international situation, science and technology information network, information integration, support organizations, and R&D facilities Freeman, 1987; Lundvall, 1992; Lee, 1996; Lee and Song, 1998; Song, 2009; Koo et al. 2012; Lee, 2013