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Table 1 Framework for explaining linkages of MNEs R&D units

From: Globalization of R&D and open innovation: linkages of foreign R&D centers in India

Degree of Linkages Rank Type of external linkages with local organizations: universities, government research institutes, firms, suppliers and clients
High 4 Joint research Collaborative projects with local organizations on different types and degrees of research, development and design of new products, processes, joint problem-solving involving high degrees of trust
  3 Joint adaptation modification Acquisition and sharing of knowledge with local organizations for basic or intermediate innovation activities
  2 Human resource recruitment, education & training Recruitment of human resources and education and training programmes with local organizations
  1 Arm’s length Informal and /or one off type of interactions based on minimum exchange of information
Low/Lacking 0 No linkage  
  1. (Source: Ariffin, 2000; Ariffin & Figueiredo, 2006 and Figueiredo, 2011)